Earthquake | Top Ten Deadliest Earthquake in the World

Earthquake | Top Ten Deadliest Earthquake in the World

Earthquake | Top Ten Deadliest Earthquake in the World, Why Earthquake Occurs?


Earthquakes is a phenomenon in which are caused by movements within the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle. They range from small occurrences that can only be detected by sensitive equipment to severe, unexpected events lasting several minutes that have resulted in some of the worst calamities in recorded human history.

A abrupt release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere, which produces seismic waves, causes the Earth's surface to shake during an earthquake. A quake, tremor, or temblor are other names for it. There are many different types of earthquakes, ranging in size from those that are so small that no one can feel them to those that are so strong that they may completely upend towns and launch people and items into the air. Seismic activity refers to the quantity, variety, and magnitude of earthquakes that take place in a region over a given time period. What is referred to as seismicity at a particular location on Earth is the typical rate of seismic energy release per unit volume. Seismic rumbling is another name for tremors, which are not earthquakes.

The surface of the Earth is shaken, moved, or otherwise disturbed during earthquakes. When a large earthquake's epicenter lies offshore, the seabed may be sufficiently shaken to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes have also been known to cause many landslides.

Any seismic event that generates seismic waves, regardless of whether it was brought on by a natural disaster or human activity, is referred to as a "earthquake." Earthquakes are primarily caused by geological fault rupture, although they can also be caused by landslides, mine explosions, volcanic activity, and nuclear tests. the epicenter, sometimes referred to as the focal point, of an earthquake. The epicentre is the region just above the hypocenter at ground level.

Naturally occurring earthquakes

Tectonic earthquakes can occur everywhere on Earth if there is sufficient elastic strain energy stored to induce crack propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault can only pass one another smoothly and seismically if there are no flaws or asperities along the fault surface that would increase the frictional resistance. The majority of fault surfaces contain these asperities, which causes stick-slip behaviour. After the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates raises stress, which in turn leads to a buildup of stored strain energy in the region surrounding the fault surface.

The process continues, releasing the accumulated energy, until the tension is high enough to pass through the asperity and suddenly allows sliding over the locked portion of the fault. This energy is released during an earthquake as a result of frictional heating of the fault surface, radiated elastic strain seismic waves, and rock fracture.

This trend of progressively building strain and stress that is occasionally disturbed by catastrophic seismic failure is described by the elastic-rebound theory. Only 10% or less of an earthquake's total energy is thought to be released as seismic energy. The majority of an earthquake's energy either becomes frictional heat or is used to fuel the expansion of earthquake fissures. As a result, earthquakes increase the Earth's temperature and decrease its elastic potential energy, albeit these changes are minor in comparison to the conductive and convective flow of heat out of the Earth's deep interior.

Below is a list of earthquakes organized by time, place, or nation, year, magnitude, price, number of casualties, and number of scientific investigations.

List of 10 Deadliest Earthquake

List of 10 Deadliest Earthquake

SL. No.







Shaanxi, China




In China, more than 97 counties were impacted. 520 miles across were devastated. Up to 60% of the population is thought to have perished in some counties. Settlements in loess caves are to blame for such devastating losses since they collapsed as a result.


Port-au-Prince, Haiti




Still contested is the death toll. Here, we give the NOAA's NGDC's adopted number, which the Haitian government reported in order to maintain consistency with other earthquake data. Sources cite a lower estimate of 220,000. In the latter scenario, this event's position in the aforementioned rankings would drop to 7.


Antakya, Turkey




The nearby contemporary city of Antakya, Antioch, and its surroundings sustained significant damage. Along with Apamea, Beirut also sustained significant damage. Lebanon's coast was damaged as a result of a local tsunami..


Antakya, Turkey




Severe destruction to the Byzantine Empire's region. The buildings were totally destroyed by the earthquake. However, subsequent fires and strong winds also contributed to significant damage.


Tangshan, China




Reported that practically all buildings and structures were constructed and built without taking seismic considerations since the risk of earthquakes had been substantially overestimated. Up to 85% of buildings are thought to have collapsed. As a result of the size and number of unreinforced brick buildings in Tangshan, many people perished.


Gyzndzha, Azerbaijan




Commonly known as the Ganja earthquake. On the specifics of this occurrence, there is a dearth of documentation.


Sumatra, Indonesia




A series of significant tsunamis were caused by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Sumatra (ranging 15 to 30 metres in height). Indonesia was the hardest struck of the 14 countries in the region, followed by Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. There were no tsunami alert system was in placed.


Damghan, Iran




The length of the damage area was estimated to be 220 miles. It is also believed that the old city of Ahr-e Qumis was abandoned after the earthquake since it sustained so severe damage.


Gansu, China




7 provinces and areas sustained damage. Almost all of the structures in certain cities either fell down or were buried by landslides. According to reports, many people died as a result of exposure to the cold since survivors relied solely on makeshift shelters that weren't adequate for the bitter winter because they were afraid of aftershocks.


Dvin, Armenia




The majority of the city of Dvin's structures, including its fortifications and palaces, collapsed, leaving only 100 structures surviving, according to estimates. Dvin's city defences destroyed, Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj, the Sajid emir of Adharbayjan, took control and turned the town into a military outpost.


Tokyo, Japan




10% of reinforced structures and more than 50% of brick buildings collapsed. caused a tsunami with a 12 m height. Large fires started, which spread swiftly when accompanied with a sizable tornado.

A system of accelerometers, seismometers, communication, computers, and sirens known as an earthquake warning system or earthquake early warning system is designed to alert neighboring regions of a significant earthquake while it is still under way. This is not the same as earthquake prediction, which at this time cannot deliver clear event warnings.


Earthquakes can cause the ground to tremble, collapse structures, disrupt services like transportation, and start fires. They can bring about landslides and tsunamis.

Plate tectonics, or the shifting of blocks of the Earth's crust, is the primary source of earthquakes. Along a fault, the rock formations slide past one another. Both foreshocks and aftershocks, which are smaller earthquakes, can happen before or after the primary earthquake. Seismic zones, which primarily coincide with ocean trenches, mid-ocean ridges, and mountain ranges, are where most earthquakes occur on Earth.

The focal is the location where an earthquake first occurred. The area of the Earth's surface just above the focus is known as the epicenter. Near the Earth's surface, most earthquake foci are located within a few tens of kilometers. Shallow-focus earthquakes are those that are less than 70 kilometers deep. Deep-focus earthquakes are deeper than 300 km, while intermediate-focus earthquakes are between 70 and 300 km deep. All of the Earth's seismic zones experience shallow-focus earthquakes, whereas intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes nearly exclusively occur in seismic regions close to ocean trenches.

An earthquake's destructiveness is influenced by its size, depth (shallow earthquakes are more destructive), and location. The severity of an earthquake, the quantity of ground motion, and the energy released during the earthquake can all be used to describe how big it was (related to the Richter magnitude).

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