Sodium Chloride | Common Salt (NaCI): Properties and uses

Sodium Chloride | Common Salt (NaCI)

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

Sodium chloride, generally known as salt, is an ionic substance with the chemical formula NaCl, denoting a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. Sea salt, however it also contains other chemical salts. The molar weights of 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl in 100 g of NaCl are 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol, respectively. The salt that contributes the most to the saltiness of seawater and the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms is sodium chloride. Table salt, often known as salt, is frequently used as a condiment and food preservative in its edible form. Many industrial processes employ large amounts of sodium chloride, and it is a significant source of the salt and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical synthesis. Another major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of road in sub-freezing weather condition.

Sodium Chloride Chemical formula is NaCl and it is called as sodium chloride. Sodium chloride symbol is NaCl.

Sodium chloride is the most common salts of sodium. The sodium chloride (NaCl) is also called common salt, table salt, rock salt or sea salt and widely used for food and other industries. An aqueous solution of sodium chloride is known as brine which is used in industrial use. Sea water contains about 2.95 per cent sodium chloride. As a rock salt it is found at several places in England, Australia, Germany, Canada, Pakistan (Khewra-Punjab) and India (Mandi- Himachal Pradesh). It is found in land lakes (e.g., Sambhar Lake in India, lake Elton in Russia).

Rock Salt
Rock Salt

Manufacture from sea water

In tropical countries like India and other parts of world, on the sea coasts, the sea water is allowed to dry up under sun heat in small tanks or pits then thee solid crust so formed is collected.

Sea water is concentrated by freezing in regions with extreme cold. In large iron pans, the concentrated solution is then evaporated. Thusly produced sodium chloride includes contaminants like calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, etc. By squeezing hydrogen chloride through a saturated solution of the commercial salt, it is made purer. The common ion effect causes sodium chloride to precipitate.


  • It is a white crystalline solid. It is slightly hygroscopic. It is soluble in water. It dissolves in water with absorption of heat.
  • Its density is 2.17 g/mL when pure. It melts at 800°C.
  • It is insoluble in alcohol.
  • The extraction of sodium and production of all other sodium compounds begin with the common salt. The three main substances extracted from table salt are sodium, sodium hydroxide, and sodium carbonate. These three substances are subsequently used to create other significant sodium compounds.


  • It is a necessary component of food.
  • Food products like fish, pork, etc. are preserved using it.
  • It is employed to create beneficial sodium compounds.
  • It can be used to make freezing mixes and to salt out soap.
  • Roads are de-iced with impure salt (rock salt).

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