Cobalt | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Cobalt | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Exploring the Marvels of Cobalt: Properties, Uses, and Compounds


Cobalt, a captivating chemical element, holds the symbol Co on the periodic table, boasting an atomic number of 27 and an atomic mass of approximately 58.93 atomic mass units. Let's delve into the intricate world of cobalt, exploring its electron configuration, valency, chemical and physical properties, reactions with other materials, uses, facts, occurrence, and production.

Electronic Configuration and Valency:

Cobalt's electron configuration is [Ar] 4s² 3d⁷ or 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d7 4s2 revealing its placement in the transition metals. With a valency commonly observed as +2 or +3, cobalt readily forms compounds by donating or accepting electrons.

Chemical and Physical Properties:

Cobalt showcases a distinctive metallic luster, a silver-gray color, and is known for its magnetic properties. It has a melting point of 1,495°C and a boiling point of 2,927°C, making it a robust element under various conditions. Its magnetic properties find applications in the production of high-performance magnets.

Reactions with Other Materials:

One notable cobalt compound is cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂·6H₂O), commonly represented as CoCl₂·6H₂O. This hydrate undergoes reversible color changes, shifting from blue to pink with changes in temperature due to the conversion between the hydrated and anhydrous forms.

Cobalt and Nickel:

Cobalt often forms alloys with nickel, creating materials with enhanced properties. One well-known alloy is "nichrome," a combination of nickel and chromium, where cobalt contributes to the alloy's stability and resistance to corrosion.

Cobalt Coordination Compounds:

The coordination complex Co(NH₃)₆Cl₃, also known as hexamminecobalt(III) chloride, showcases cobalt in a +3 oxidation state. The ammonia ligands surround the central cobalt ion, forming a stable and colorful complex.

Cobalt Uses and Facts:

Cobalt finds application in diverse industries, including the production of rechargeable batteries, superalloys for jet engines, and magnetic alloys. It plays a crucial role in vitamin B12, essential for human health. Cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope of cobalt, is used in medicine for cancer treatment and sterilization.

Occurrence and Production:

Cobalt occurs naturally in the Earth's crust, often in association with nickel and copper deposits. Significant cobalt-producing countries include the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Russia, and Australia. Extraction methods involve mining, followed by refining processes to obtain pure cobalt for industrial applications.


In conclusion, cobalt stands as a remarkable element with unique properties and versatile applications across various industries. From its magnetic prowess to its role in life-sustaining compounds, cobalt continues to captivate scientists, engineers, and researchers alike. As technology advances, the importance of cobalt is likely to grow, solidifying its place in the intricate tapestry of the periodic table.

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Beryllium | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Hydrogen | Difference between Blue and Green Hydrogen | Hydrogen Fuel

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