Calcium | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Calcium | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Exploring the Essential Element: Calcium


Calcium is an essential element that plays a crucial role in various biological processes and is vital for the well-being of living organisms. In this blog, we will delve into the diverse aspects of calcium, including its elemental properties, chemical reactions, and practical applications.

Elemental Characteristics:

Symbol: Ca

Atomic Number: 20

Atomic Mass: 40.08 g/mol

Electron Configuration: [Ar] 4s² 


Valency: +2

Physical Properties:

Calcium is a shiny, silver-gray metal at room temperature, and it exhibits excellent electrical conductivity. It is malleable and ductile, meaning it can be easily shaped into various forms. Calcium has a melting point of 842°C and a boiling point of 1,484°C, highlighting its stability under normal conditions.

Chemical Properties:

1. Reactivity: Calcium is a highly reactive metal, especially with water. When exposed to water, it reacts vigorously, producing calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

Example: Ca+2H2OCa(OH)2+H2

2. Oxidation: Calcium readily undergoes oxidation, forming a white oxide coating when exposed to air. This oxide layer protects the metal from further corrosion.

3. Combustibility: Calcium exhibits a bright orange-red flame when burned, indicating its ability to react with oxygen.

Example: 2Ca+O2→2CaO3Ca+N₂→Ca3CaN₂

Compounds and Reactions:

1. Calcium Chloride CaCl2): This compound is a common calcium salt with various applications, including as a drying agent in the laboratory.

2. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO₃): Found in limestone, marble, and chalk, calcium carbonate is crucial in the formation of rocks and minerals.

Uses of Calcium:

1. Bone Health: Calcium is a fundamental component of bones and teeth, contributing to their strength and structure.

2. Agriculture: Calcium is used as a soil conditioner to enhance crop growth and prevent soil acidity.

3. Metallurgy: Calcium is employed in the production of various alloys, such as aluminum and beryllium.

4. Pharmaceuticals: Calcium plays a role in the formulation of medications and dietary supplements.

5. Construction: Calcium compounds like cement and plaster are crucial in the construction industry.

Fascinating Facts:

1. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth's crust.

2. The name "calcium" is derived from the Latin word "calx," meaning lime.

3. Humans and animals require a sufficient intake of calcium for proper nerve transmission, muscle function, and blood clotting.


In conclusion, calcium is a versatile and indispensable element with a wide range of applications in various fields. Its chemical and physical properties, along with its reactivity and role in biological processes, make it a fascinating subject of study and an essential component for life on Earth.

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