Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) | Baking Soda Description and Uses

Sodium Bicarbonate | NaHCO3 | Baking Soda

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) | Baking Soda

Sodium bicarbonate is a chemical compound commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda. The formula of Sodium bicarbonate is NaHCO₃. It is a salt made up of the bicarbonate anion (HCO₃) and the sodium cation (Na+). A white, crystalline material known as sodium bicarbonate, it typically appears as a fine powder. It has an alkaline and salty flavour similar to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

(Sodium bicarbonate) is also known as baking soda, bicarbonate of soda or Meetha soda in Hindi). It is produced by the solvay ammonia soda process as an intermediate product. By introducing carbon dioxide into the saturated solution of regular carbonate, it can be converted to bicarbonate.

Nomenclature of Sodium Bicarbonate

The sodium bicarbonate salt is known by several names, including baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda, and is frequently found next to baking powder in supermarkets due to its long history and widespread use. While bicarbonate of soda is more frequently referred to as Natron in many northern and central European nations, bicarbonate of soda is more frequently referred to as baking soda in countries. Common colloquial abbreviations include sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate, and bicarb. 

IUPAC name of Sodium bicarbonate is sodium hydrogencarbonate and formula is NaHCO₃.

Na₂CO₃ + CO₂ + H₂O 2NaHCO₃ (Sparingly soluble)

Properties of Sodium bicarbonate

It is a white crystalline solid characteristic, also it is sparingly soluble in water. Because of hydrolysis, the fluid has an alkaline character. It's a weakly basic solution.

NaHCO₃ + H₂O NaOH + H₂CO₃

With methyl orange, the solution turns yellow in color, but with phenolphthalein it remains colorless. It releases carbon dioxide and water when heated, creating sodium carbonate.

2NaHCO₃  Na₂CO₃+ H₂O + CO₂

With sodium bicarbonate, the metal salt that produces basic carbonate also yields normal carbonate.

ZnSO₄ +2NaHCO  ZnCO₃ + Na₂SO₄ + H₂O+CO₂

Use of Sodium Bicarbonate

  • It is widely used as a medicine (sodabicarb) to neutralise the acidity in the stomach.
  • Cooking & Baking: It is mostly used to produce baking powder, which is primarily used in baking and cooking. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium hydrogen tartrate are the two main ingredients in baking powder. Calcium hydrogen phosphate (10%), sodium aluminium sulphate (30%), starch (40%) and NaHCO₃ (30%) are also used to make baking powder. Baking soda is generally used as a leavening agent in baking or cooking. When it reacts with acid, it releases carbon dioxide, which causes the batter to expand and gives cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods their particular texture and grain.
  • It is used in the production of fizzy cold drinks.
  • It's an ingredient of fire extinguishers.
  • It is utilized to make carbon dioxide.
  • Pyrotechnics: One of the key ingredients in the typical "black snake" firework is sodium bicarbonate. The effect is brought on by the heat decomposition of sucrose, the other major component, which results in carbon dioxide gas and a long, snake-like ash as a combustion byproduct. When heated, sodium bicarbonate releases CO₂ and H₂O, both of which are flame retardants, delaying combustion reactions.
  • Agriculture: When sprayed to leaves, sodium bicarbonate can stop fungi from growing, but it does not actually kill the fungus. Chlorosis and fruit discoloration can both be brought on by using too much sodium bicarbonate (one percent solution)
  • Uses in veterinary medicine: Sodium bicarbonate is added to cattle feed as a buffering agent for the rumen.
  • Cleaning agent: Sodablasting, a method of removing paint and corrosion, uses sodium bicarbonate as a cleaning agent. In order to remove surface contamination from softer and less durable substrates like aluminium, copper, or wood that could be harmed by silica sand abrasive media, sodium bicarbonate is employed as a blasting medium.
  • Odor control: It is frequently asserted that baking soda is an efficient odour eliminator, and it is frequently advised to keep an open box in the fridge to absorb odour. In an advertising campaign that began in 1972, the top-selling baking soda brand in the United States, Arm & Hammer, promoted this concept.

Baking powder

Baking powder, which is also available for use in cooking, has a bicarbonate content of about 30% as well as a number of acidic chemicals that are activated when water is added, negating the need for additional acids in the cooking medium. Sodium bicarbonate is frequently mixed with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate, or cream of tartar in baking powder formulations. Baking soda is alkaline, and the acid in baking powder prevents a metallic flavour when sodium carbonate is produced chemically during baking.

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