Molybdenum | Descriptions, Properties, Uses & Facts

Molybdenum | Descriptions, Properties, Uses & Facts

Exploring the World of Molybdenum: A Comprehensive Overview


Molybdenum, denoted by the symbol Mo, holds a prominent place in the periodic table with an atomic number of 42. This transition metal boasts intriguing properties, applications in various industries, and a fascinating chemistry that extends from its electron configuration to its compounds and alloys.

1. Fundamental Properties:

Symbol: Mo

Atomic Number: 42

Atomic Mass: 95.95 u

Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d⁵ 5s¹ or


Valency: Molybdenum exhibits multiple oxidation states, with common valencies of +2, +3, +4, +5, and +6.

2. Chemical and Physical Properties:

Physical State: Solid at room temperature

Melting Point: 2,623 degrees Celsius

Boiling Point:4,639 degrees Celsius

Density: 10.28 g/cm³

Color: Silvery-white

High Melting Point: Molybdenum's high melting point contributes to its suitability for high-temperature applications.

3. Reactivity and Compounds:

Reaction with Oxygen: Molybdenum forms oxides, with Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) being a notable example.

Corrosion Resistance: Molybdenum exhibits excellent corrosion resistance, making it valuable in various environments.

4. Occurrence and Production:

Natural Occurrence: Molybdenum is found in various minerals, with molybdenite (MoS2) being a primary source.

Mining and Extraction: Extraction methods involve roasting molybdenite followed by chemical processes to obtain molybdenum oxide.

Global Production: Major producers include China, the United States, and Chile.

5. Ferro Molybdenum:

Definition: Ferro Molybdenum is an alloy of iron and molybdenum.

Application: Used in steel production to enhance corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

6. Molybdenum Trioxide (MoO3):

Role: Primarily used in the production of molybdenum metal and alloys.

Applications: Catalysts, corrosion inhibitors, and as a precursor for molybdenum compounds.

7. TZM Molybdenum:

Definition: TZM is an alloy of titanium, zirconium, and molybdenum.

Properties: TZM exhibits high-temperature strength and creep resistance, making it suitable for aerospace and high-tech applications.

8. TZM Material:

Applications:Used in aerospace components, electronics, and high-temperature furnaces.

Advantages: TZM offers improved high-temperature performance compared to pure molybdenum.

9. Moo3 (Molybdenum Trioxide):

Uses: Moo3 is a versatile compound with applications in catalysis, electronics, and the production of molybdenum metal.

10. Molybdenum Products:

Molybdenum Price: Influenced by market demand, mining costs, and global economic factors.

Molybdenum Bar, Sheet, Rod, Wire, Plate, and Foil: These products find applications in electronics, aerospace, and various industrial processes.

Molybdenum is a metallic element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. It has several important uses and interesting facts. Here are some key points:

Uses of Molybdenum:

Alloying Agent: Molybdenum is commonly used as an alloying agent in various steels and superalloys. It enhances the strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance of these materials.

Stainless Steel Production: Molybdenum is a crucial element in the production of stainless steel. It helps improve the corrosion resistance and high-temperature strength of stainless steel.

Catalyst: Molybdenum compounds are used as catalysts in various chemical processes. One notable example is in the petroleum refining industry, where molybdenum catalysts are used in the conversion of crude oil into gasoline.

Electronics: Molybdenum is used in the production of electronic components and thin films. It is employed as a back contact material in thin-film transistors and as a barrier layer in the production of integrated circuits.

Agriculture: Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is used as a fertilizer in agriculture to ensure healthy plant growth. Leguminous plants, in particular, require molybdenum for nitrogen fixation.

Medical Applications: Molybdenum-99, a radioactive isotope of molybdenum, is used in nuclear medicine for medical imaging. It is a precursor to technetium-99m, which is widely used in diagnostic procedures.

Aerospace: Molybdenum is used in the aerospace industry for its high-temperature strength and resistance to corrosion. It is utilized in aircraft and spacecraft components.

Facts about Molybdenum:

Discovery: Molybdenum was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1778, but it wasn't until 1781 that it was isolated and recognized as a distinct element by Peter Jacob Hjelm.

Physical Properties: Molybdenum has a high melting point of 2,623 degrees Celsius (4,753 degrees Fahrenheit) and a relatively low coefficient of thermal expansion. These properties make it suitable for high-temperature applications.

Abundance:Molybdenum is not as abundant as some other elements, and it is often obtained as a byproduct of copper mining.

Molybdenum Disulfide: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a lubricant commonly used in high-performance and extreme conditions. It is known for its excellent lubricating properties, especially in high-temperature environments.

Biological Importance: Molybdenum is an essential trace element for many living organisms, including humans. It is a cofactor for certain enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism.

Understanding these uses and facts highlights the diverse applications and significance of molybdenum in various industries and scientific fields.


Molybdenum's significance extends far beyond its presence in the periodic table. From its role in strengthening steel to its applications in high-tech alloys, this element continues to shape diverse industries. Whether in the form of ferro molybdenum or high-purity molybdenum products, its versatility and unique properties make it a cornerstone in materials science and modern technology.

Also Read:

Neon | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Nitrogen | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Beryllium | Descriptions, Chemical and Physical Properties, Uses & Facts

Hydrogen | Difference between Blue and Green Hydrogen | Hydrogen Fuel

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