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Deadliest Diseases | Top 10 Deadliest Diseases in the World

Top 10 Deadliest Disease

Deadliest Diseases | The world’s Most Dangerous Disease in the world

Three main categories—cardiovascular (ischemic heart disease, stroke), respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory infections), and neonatal conditions—which include birth asphyxia and trauma, neonatal sepsis and infections, and preterm birth complications—account for the majority of deaths worldwide.

Injuries, noncommunicable (chronic) ailments, and communicable (infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders) conditions can all be categorised as causes of death.

Top 10 Deadliest Diseases in the World

Seven of the top ten causes of death worldwide in 2019 were noncommunicable diseases. 80 percent of the top 10 causes of death, or 44 percent of all deaths, were caused by these seven factors. However, 74 percent of fatalities worldwide in 2019 were caused by noncommunicable diseases as a whole.

Ischemic heart disease, which accounts for 16% of all fatalities worldwide, is the largest killer. This disease has shown the highest increase in deaths since 2000, with an increase of more than 2 million deaths to 8.9 million deaths in 2019. The second and third most common causes of mortality, accounting for roughly 11% and 6% of all fatalities, respectively, are stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Here are the 10 most dangerous diseases in the world:

Ischaemic Heart Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial ischemia, or simply heart disease, is characterised by the obstruction of the heart's arteries by atherosclerotic plaque. Of all cardiovascular diseases, it is the most prevalent. Stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death are a few examples. Chest pain or discomfort is a typical symptom that might radiate to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. On rare occasions, it could feel like heartburn. The majority of the time, symptoms are brought on by physical activity or emotional stress, last for a short while, and get better with rest. There may be no symptoms at all and/or shortness of breath as well. The first indication is frequently a heart attack. Heart failure or an irregular heartbeat are examples of additional complications.

High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, inactivity, obesity, elevated cholesterol, an unbalanced diet, depression, and binge drinking are risk factors. The EKG, heart stress testing, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and coronary angiogram, among other tests, may aid in making a diagnosis.

Healthy nutrition, frequent exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and quitting smoking are all ways to lower your risk of developing CAD. Sometimes, diabetic, high-cholesterol, or hypertensive medications are taken. There is little support for screening low-risk individuals who are asymptomatic. The same steps that go into prevention also go into treatment. It could be advised to take additional drugs such beta blockers, nitroglycerin, or antiplatelet drugs like aspirin. In cases of severe disease, procedures like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be employed. It is unknown whether adding PCI or CABG to the other treatments for people with stable CAD enhances life expectancy or lowers the risk of heart attacks.

Stroke, Cerebrovascular accident

A stroke has a high mortality risk. Loss of vision, speech, paralysis, and/or confusion can all affect survivors. Because of the way it knocks people out, a stroke is so named. People who have had a previous stroke are much more likely to develop additional strokes. Depending on the type of stroke, there is a risk of mortality. The best prognosis is associated with transient ischemic attacks (TIA), where symptoms disappear in less than 24 hours, and stroke brought on by carotid stenosis a condition of narrowing of the arteries in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. A cerebral blood vessel rupture is the deadliest of all possible outcomes, making arterial blockage more dangerous.

Around the world, 15 million people experience a stroke each year. Five million of them pass away, and another five million become permanently crippled, burdening the family and the community. Stroke occurs less frequently in those under 40; when it does, high blood pressure is the primary contributing factor. However, 8% of kids with sickle cell illness also experience strokes.

The two most modifiable hazards are high blood pressure and tobacco smoking. Four stroke victims out of every ten who pass away could have been rescued if their blood pressure had been controlled. Two-fifths of stroke deaths in people under 65 can be attributed to smoking. Other significant risk factors include heart attack, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. In many industrialized nations, there is a decrease in the frequency of stroke, mostly due to better blood pressure management and smoking cessation. However, due of the ageing population, the absolute number of strokes is rising.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A widespread, preventable, and treatable chronic lung disease that affects both men and women worldwide is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Airflow into and out of the lungs is restricted as a result of abnormalities in the tiny airways of the lungs. The airways narrow due to a number of factors. Parts of the lung may be destroyed, the airways may be obstructed by mucus, and the lining of the airways may become inflamed and swollen.

Chronic bronchitis or emphysema are other names for COPD. Emphysema typically refers to the lungs' tiny air sacs at the end of airways being destroyed. A chronic cough that produces phlegm as a result of airway irritation is referred to as chronic bronchitis.

Lower Respiratory Tract infections

As the fourth most common cause of death, lower respiratory infections continued to be the most lethal communicable disease in the globe. The number of fatalities has decreased significantly, though; in 2019, it claimed 2.6 million lives, 460 000 fewer than it did in 2000.

Infections of the lower respiratory tract include those that occur in the lungs or below the voice box. These diseases include tuberculosis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.

A lower respiratory tract infection can affect the air sacs at the end of the airways, as in the case of pneumonia, or the airways themselves, as in the case of bronchitis.

Neonatal conditions

Fifth on the list are neonatal conditions. Neonatal conditions killed 2 million infants and young children in 2019, 1.2 million fewer than in 2000. However, neonatal conditions are one of the categories for which the global drop in mortality in absolute numbers over the previous two decades has been the biggest.

Examples of frequent neonatal disorders include prematurity, respiratory dysfunction, birth trauma, congenital abnormalities, neonatal infection, and infant hemolytic disorders. The key to lowering these illnesses is preventive obstetrics. Premature birth can be prevented with regular antenatal check-ups, a balanced diet, iron and folic acid supplements, and avoiding multiple pregnancies. Any conditions that result in maternal hypoxia during pregnancy are also to blame for causing hypoxia in the foetus. The cornerstones of fighting respiratory dysfunction are proper prenatal care and abstaining from narcotic medications throughout pregnancy. Obstetricians have a crucial role in preventing birth trauma, which stands alone as a significant example of neonatal diseases.

Birth trauma is significantly decreased by receiving adequate prenatal care to identify any obstetrical anomalies. Genetic counselling and early abortion in cases of severe congenital malformations are crucial issues that obstetricians can handle in congenital anomalies cases. If obstetricians address any unusual vaginal discharge during the prenatal period, they can reduce the risk of neonatal infections. Delivery time should avoid using dirty dressings. The mother must have the proper vaccinations, and HIV transmission education is also crucial. The right Rh and ABO blood groups in the antenatal period and appropriate care at the time of birth helps combat hemolytic disorders in the baby.


Lung, Trachea, and Bronchial Cancer

Noncommunicable disease deaths are increasing. Lung, trachea, and bronchial cancer fatalities have increased from 1.2 million to 1.8 million, placing them at number six on the list of main causes of death.

Rare congenital bronchial anomalies include tracheal bronchus. It often starts at a point about 2 cm above the tracheal bifurcation, on the right lateral wall of the trachea. The patients are mostly asymptomatic, although some may have chronic bronchitis, recurrent pneumonia, or bronchiectasis. A malignant tumour seldom develops from an abnormal bronchus. Only four examples of lung cancer emanating from the tracheal bronchus have been documented in the international literature; the case we discuss is the fifth.

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia were the seventh most common cause of death in 2019. Women suffer disproportionately. In the entire world, women account for 65% of dementia-related fatalities.

Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder that gradually reduces a person’s capacity for thinking, remembering, and performing even the most fundamental tasks. The majority of people with late-onset symptoms often start to exhibit symptoms in their mid-60s. Rarely, people between the ages of 30 and 60 will have early-onset Alzheimer's. For elderly adults, Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.


Diarrhoeal disorders

Diarrhoeal disorders have had one of the biggest drops in mortality, with 1.5 million fewer deaths worldwide in 2019 compared to 2.6 million in 2000.

The passage of three or more watery or loose stools per day is considered to be diarrhoea (or more frequent passage than is normal for the individual). Diarrhoea is not the frequent passing of formed stools or the passing of loose, "pasty" stools by breastfeeding infants.

Diarrhea is typically a sign of an intestinal illness, which can be brought on by a number of different bacterial, viral, and parasite species. Poor hygiene can cause an infection to spread from person to person or through tainted food or drinking water.

Diarrhea prevention measures include using safe drinking water, using better sanitation practises, and washing your hands with soap can lower the risk of contracting a disease. Oral rehydration solution (ORS), a mixture of pure water, sugar, and salt, should be used to treat diarrhoea. Additionally, a 10–14 day course of dispersible 20 mg zinc tablets used in addition to standard care reduces the length of diarrhoea and improves results.


Diabetes

After a notable percentage growth of 70% since 2000, diabetes has climbed among the top 10 causes of death. Among the top 10, diabetes has contributed to an 80% increase in male fatalities since 2000, which is the greatest jump among the top 10.

If you have diabetes, your body either produces inadequate insulin or uses it improperly. Diabetes is a chronic disease that has an impact on how your body uses food as fuel. Your body converts the bulk of the food you eat into sugar (glucose), which is subsequently released into your circulation.

There are no longer any diseases on the list that were among the top 10 causes of death in 2000. One of them is HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS-related fatalities have decreased by 51% over the past 20 years, falling from the eighth leading cause of death worldwide in 2000 to the nineteenth in 2019.

Kidney Disease

The 10th largest cause of death worldwide is now kidney illnesses, up from the 13th. From 813 000 in 2000 to 1.3 million in 2019, mortality has increased.

The kidneys are two organs that resemble like beans. Your kidneys produce urine while removing surplus water and waste from your blood. Your kidneys are harmed and unable to properly filter blood if you have renal disease.

Renal disease is more likely to develop if you have diabetes or high blood pressure. Dialysis or a kidney transplant are available as therapies for renal failure. Acute renal injury, kidney cysts, kidney stones, and kidney infection are some of the other kidney issues.

 

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