Kidney Stone: Kidney Stone Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Kidney Stone Symptoms

Kidney Stone: Kidney Stone Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosed, Treatment and Prevention

Kidney Stone

Hard deposits made up of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys are known as kidney stones. They are also referred to as nephrolithiasis, renal calculi, or urolithiasis.

Diet, excessive body weight, various illnesses, certain supplements, and medications are just a few of the causes of kidney stones. Any component of your urinary tract, including your kidneys and bladder, might develop kidney stones. Minerals may crystallise and stick together in concentrated urine, which frequently results in stones.

Even though passing kidney stones can be excruciatingly painful, if they are identified in time, they usually don't cause long-term damage. Depending on your situation, you might merely need to take painkillers and consume a lot of water to remove a kidney stone. Other circumstances, such as when stones become problematic or get stuck in the urinary tract or are connected to an infection, may call for surgery.

If you have a higher chance of getting kidney stones again, your doctor may suggest preventive care to lower your risk.

Kidney Stone Symptoms

Typically, symptoms do not appear until a kidney stone shifts or enters one of the ureters. The tubes that link the kidneys and urine bladder are known as ureters.

The flow of urine can be restricted, the kidney can become inflamed, and the ureter can spasm as a result of a kidney stone that becomes caught in the ureters. All of these conditions can be very painful to human. In above conditions human can then experience the following signs:

  • Excruciating, stabbing pain below the ribcage in the side and back
  • Lower abdominal and groyne pain that radiates;
  • Waves of varying severity.
  • When urinating, there may be discomfort or burning.

Other signs and symptoms may include:

  • Pink, red, or brown urine
  • cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • a persistent desire to urinate
  • urinating more frequent or urinating in less amounts
  • nausea and vomiting
  • if an infection is present, one will have fever and feeling chills.

As the kidney stone passes through your urinary tract, the pain it causes may change, such as moving to a different spot or becoming more intense.

Kidney stone treatment

When to see a doctor

If you experience any signs or symptoms, schedule a visit with your doctor.

Immediately seek medical help if you experience:

  • Pain so intense that you are unable to find a comfortable position or sit still
  • Pain coupled with dizziness and motion sickness

  • A temperature and chills together with pain
  • Urine with blood in it.
  • Difficulty in passing urine or urine pass slowly.

Kidney Stone Causes

Although there is typically no single cause for kidney stones, a number of factors may increase your chance of having them.

When your urine contains more crystal-forming substances than the fluid in your urine can dilute, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, kidney stones can develop. If your urine lacks chemicals that prevent crystals from attaching to one another, kidney stones are more likely to form.

Types of  Kidney Stones

Knowing what kind of kidney stone you have will help you locate its origin and possibly provide you advice on how to reduce your risk of getting more stones in the future. If possible, try to save any kidney stones you pass so you can give them to your doctor for analysis.

Types of kidney stones include:

Calcium stones

The majority of kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Each day, your liver generates oxalate, which you can also receive from meals. Some fruits, vegetables, nuts, and foods like chocolate have high oxalate content.

Dietary factors, excessive vitamin D dosages, intestinal bypass surgery, different metabolic disorders, and dietary factors can all cause the quantity of calcium or oxalate in urine to increase.

Calcium phosphate stones are another type of calcium stone that can develop in human body due to calcium deposit. This kind of stone occurs more frequently in metabolic disorders such renal tubular acidosis. It may also be linked to a number of medications used to treat seizures or migraines, such as topiramate (Topamax, Trokendi XR, Qudexy XR).

Strivite stones

Urinary tract infections have been linked to the development of kidney stones. These stones have the potential to develop quickly and are incredibly big, sometimes with few signs or warning.

Uric acid Stones

People with chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption, those who consume a high protein diet, those who have diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and those who lose too much fluid can all develop uric acid stones. Specific hereditary factors may also raise risk of developing uric acid stones in human.

Cystine Stones

People who have a hereditary condition called cystinuria, in which the kidneys expel an excessive amount of a certain amino acid, develop these stones.

Risk Elements of Kidney Stones

The following elements can increase or decrease your risk of developing kidney stones:

  • Family or Personal History: If someone in your family has had kidney stones, you are more likely to have them yourself. If you've already had one or more kidney stones, your chances of developing more are increased.
  • Dehydration: If you don't get enough water each day, your risk of developing kidney stones may increase. People who perspire a lot and reside in hot, dry locations could be at a higher risk.
  • Specific diets: Consuming a diet more reach in protein, sodium (salt), and sugar may make human more susceptible to developing some kidney stones. This is especially true if you consume a lot of sodium. When you eat too much salt, your kidneys must filter more calcium, which raises your chance of developing kidney stones.
  • Obesity: Weight gain, a wide waist circumference, and a high body mass index (BMI) have all been related to a higher risk of kidney stones.
  • Surgery and Digestive disorders: Changes in the digestive system that alter your absorption of calcium and water can result from gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, or persistent diarrhoea and raise the levels of chemicals that produce kidney stones in your urine.
  • Your risk of kidney stones might also be increased by other medical diseases such renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, and recurrent UTIs.
  • Certain supplements and medications, Your risk of kidney stones can be increased by taking certain vitamins, dietary supplements, laxatives (when taken in excess), calcium-based antacids, and some drugs for migraines or depression.

Kidney Stone Treatment

Depending on the aetiology and type of stone, many treatments are available for kidney stones.

Small stones with minimal symptoms

The majority of minor kidney stones can be treated non-invasively. You might be able to ignore a little stone:

  • Drinking water: Drinking up to 2 to 3 quarts (1.8 to 3.6 litres) of liquid each day can keep your urine diluted and help to ward off the development of kidney stones. Drink enough liquid, ideally primarily water, until your urine is clear or almost clear, unless your doctor instructs you otherwise.
  • Painkillers: Small stones might be uncomfortable to pass. Your doctor might prescribe ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and other brands) or naproxen sodium to treat minor pain (Aleve).
  • Medical treatment: To aid with the passage of your kidney stone, your doctor might prescribe a drug. An alpha blocker, a class of drug, relaxes the ureter's muscles to aid kidney stone passage more swiftly and painlessly. Tamsulosin (Flomax) and the medication cocktail dutasteride and tamsulosin are examples of alpha blockers (Jalyn).

Large stones and those that cause symptoms

Large kidney Stone treatment being done by following medical procedures:

  • Using sound waves to break up stones: Larger kidney stones that can't pass naturally or that result in bleeding, kidney damage, or recurrent UTIs may need more intensive care. Stones can be broken up by sound waves, for example. Depending on the size and location of the kidney stone, your doctor may advise extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).
  • Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney: The ESWL procedure employs sound waves to produce powerful shock waves that shatter the stones into minute fragments that can be eliminated through urine. You may be given sedation or light anaesthetic to make you more comfortable during the 45 to 60 minute procedure, which can be uncomfortable and cause moderate pain.
  • Using a scope to remove stones: Blood in the urine, bruises on the back or abdomen, bleeding around the kidney and other nearby organs, and pain as the stone fragments move through the urinary tract are all possible side effects of ESWL.
  • Parathyroid gland surgery: Kidney stone removal surgery to remove particularly large stones. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (nef-row-lih-THOT-uh-me) is a treatment where a kidney stone is surgically removed using small telescopes and tools placed through a tiny incision in your back. During the procedure, you will be under general anaesthesia, and you will stay in the hospital for one to two days while you recover. If ESWL is unsuccessful, your doctor might advise you to have this surgery.

  • Using a scope to remove stones: Your doctor may insert a thin, lighted tube (ureteroscope) with a camera into your ureter through your urethra and bladder in order to remove a tiny stone from your ureter or kidney.
Once the stone has been found, specialized instruments can either snare it or smash it into fragments that will pass through your urine. After that, your doctor might insert tiny tube (a stent) into the ureter to reduce swelling and encourage recovery. During this treatment, general or local anaesthetic may be required.

  • Parathyroid gland surgery: The parathyroid glands, which are found on the four corners of your thyroid gland, right below your Adam's apple, can become hyperactive and lead to the formation of some calcium phosphate stones. Your calcium levels may become excessively high as a result of hyperparathyroidism, which is when these glands create too much parathyroid hormone, which may lead to the formation of kidney stones. When a small, benign tumour develops in one of your parathyroid glands or you get another illness that causes these glands to release extra parathyroid hormone, you may    experience hyperparathyroidism. Kidney stone growth is stopped by removing the growth from the gland. Alternately, your physician might advise treating the illness that is causing your parathyroid gland to create too much of the hormone.

Prevention of Kidney Stone

Kidney stones can be prevented by the following manner: 

Lifestyle changes

You may reduce risk of getting kidney stones if you:

  • Drink water throughout the day: If you do the following, you may lessen your chance of kidney stones: Doctors typically advise patients who have a history of kidney stones to consume enough fluids to produce 2.1 quarts (2 litres) of urine daily. To make sure you're getting enough water, your doctor might ask you to measure how much urine you produce. You might need to consume even more water if you exercise frequently, live in a hot, dry region, or live a sedentary lifestyle. You're probably getting enough water if your pee is light and clear.
  • Eat fewer oxalate-rich foods: Consume less foods high in oxalate. Your doctor might advise limiting foods high in oxalates if you frequently get calcium oxalate stones. These include soy products, beets, okra, spinach, Swiss chard, sweet potatoes, almonds, tea, and chocolate.
  • Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein: Opt for a diet low in animal protein and salt. Reduce your sodium intake and opt for plant-based protein sources like lentils. Use a salt alternative like Mrs. Dash if you want to.
  • Continue consuming foods high in calcium: Continue consuming foods high in calcium but exercise caution while using calcium supplements. Your risk of kidney stones is unaffected by the amount of calcium in your diet. Eat foods high in calcium unless your doctor instructs you differently.
  • Before taking calcium supplements—which have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones—ask your doctor. By taking supplements with meals, you may lower the risk. Some people may get kidney stones more frequently if they consume low-calcium diets.

Request a recommendation from your physician for a dietician who can assist you in creating a diet that lowers your risk of kidney stones.


The amount of salts and minerals in the urine can be regulated by medications, which may be beneficial for those who develop specific types of stones. The kind of kidney stones you have will determine the kind of medication your doctor would recommend. Here are a few instances:

Calcium stonesYour doctor could advise using a phosphate-containing medication or a thiazide diuretic to help prevent calcium stones from developing.

Uric acid stones: Allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim) and a medication to maintain your urine alkaline may be recommended by your doctor in order to lower the amounts of uric acid in your blood and urine. Allopurinol with an alkalizing agent may occasionally be used to dissolve uric acid stones.

Struvite stones: Your doctor may suggest methods to keep your urine free of bacteria that cause infection in order to prevent struvite stones, such as consuming drinks to maintain good urine flow and regular urination. Rarely, long-term usage of antibiotics in modest or irregular doses may contribute to the achievement of this objective. For instance, in order to cure your kidney stones, your doctor might advise taking an antibiotic both before and after surgery.

Cystine stones: Your doctor can also advise you to drink more fluids so that you make a lot more pee in addition to prescribing a diet lower in salt and protein. If it doesn't work, your doctor may potentially advise you to take a drug that makes cystine more soluble in urine.

Also Read:

Click here for Tulsi (Holi Basil) | Tulsi Medicinal Uses & Health Benefits

Click here for Mexican Mint | 10 Health Benefits of Indian Borage

Sadabahar (Madagascar Periwinkle) Medicinal uses & Benefits

Click here for Health Benefits & Nutrition of Moringa (Drumstick) Superfood.

Click here for Health Benefits & Nutrition Facts of flaxseed Superfood.

Click here for Health Benefits & Nutrition Facts of Sweet Potato Superfood.

Click here for Amla (Indian Gooseberry) Health Benefits and Nutrient.

Click here for Kiwi, the wonder fruit, Health Benefits & Nutrition of Kiwi

Click here for Ginger | Ginger Medicinal uses, Health Benefits & Nutrition

Click Here for health benefits of Tomatoes & nutrition Data

Click here for Covid-19  | Symptoms and Protection from Coronavirus.

Obesity | Obesity diet & tips for reducing weight

Watch Video on YouTube: 

Post a Comment