Obesity | Obesity Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factor & Control

Obesity | Obesity Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factor & Control


Obesity is a condition that extends beyond the physical. It is a medical condition that makes a number of illnesses and diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and various malignancies, more likely.

There are many reasons why. why some people have difficulty losing weight. Exercise, physical activity, and dietary components, as well as environmental, physiological, and behavioural factors, are frequently involved in the development of obesity.

The good news is that even a little weight loss can assist or perhaps prevent the health problems associated with obesity. By altering your routines, getting more exercise, and eating healthier foods, you can lose weight. Prescription medications and weight-loss procedures are additional options for controlling obesity.


A person's mass (weight) and height are used to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Since weight is measured in kilogrammes and height is measured in metres, the BMI is calculated by dividing the body weight by the square of the height. It is expressed in kilogrammes per square metre (kg/m2).

BMI can be calculated using a table or chart that plots BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for various BMI categories and may use other units of measurement.



Weight Situation

Below 18.5






30.0 and Higher


A BMI of 23 or higher may make Asians more prone to health problems.

For the majority of persons, the BMI provides a trustworthy estimation of body fat. However, because BMI does not directly measure body fat, certain people, like muscular athletes, may have a BMI that qualifies as obese despite having normal levels of body fat.

A patient's waist measurement is often taken by medical practitioners to help with treatment planning. Women with a waist circumference above 35 inches and men with a waist circumference over 40 inches (102 cm) are more likely to have health problems associated with their weight (89 centimeters).

When to see a doctor

If you are worried about your weight or the health problems it may be causing, talk to your doctor about managing your obesity. You can discuss your weight-loss options with your doctor and they can evaluate your health risks.


Despite the fact that genetic, behavioural, metabolic, and hormonal factors all have a role in body weight, obesity develops when a person consumes more calories than they expend via regular daily activity and exercise. Your body turns these extra calories into fat.

The majority of people consume too many calories each day, frequently coming from fast food and beverages with plenty of calories. Obese people may eat more calories before feeling full, get hungry sooner, or eat more as a reaction to stress or anxiety.

Now, people don't likely to expend as many calories while working in Western countries because many jobs there are far less physically demanding. Even routine actions now consume fewer calories as a result of modern conveniences like remote controls, escalators, online shopping, and drive-through banks.

Risk factors

There are a number of underlying causes and mitigating factors for obesity, including:

Inheritance from family

The genes you acquired from your parents may have an impact on the quantity and distribution of body fat that you store. Genetics may have an impact on your body's capacity to burn calories when exercising, regulate your appetite, and convert food into energy.

Obesity typically runs in families. That isn't just due to the fact that they share genes. Families usually follow the same eating and exercise patterns.

Lifestyle Choices

unhealthy diet Diets heavy in calories, lacking in fruits and vegetables, abundant in fast food, and packed with high-calorie drinks and excessive servings all contribute to weight gain.

calories in water. Particularly alcoholic calories enable people to eat a lot of food without feeling full. Sugary soft drinks and other calorie-dense beverages can greatly accelerate weight growth.

Inactivity. If you live a sedentary lifestyle, it's easy to eat more calories each day than you expend doing chores and exercising. Staring at computer, tablet, and phone screens is sedentary. There is a clear connection between screen usage and weight increase.

Certain diseases and medications

Some people's obesity may be related to a medical condition like Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing syndrome, or another illness. Medical conditions like arthritis, which can also lead to weight increase, may result in less exercise.

Several medicines can result in weight loss if you don't make up for it with diet and activity. These medications include certain beta blockers, antipsychotics, diabetic medications, antiepileptics, antidepressants, and seizure treatments.

Social and economic issues

Obesity is linked to economic and social variables. Avoiding obesity can be difficult if you don't have safe areas to walk or exercise. Similar to this, you could not have had limited access to healthier foods or been taught effective cooking methods. Furthermore, the people you hang out with can have an impact on your weight; being around obese friends or family members increases your likelihood of getting obese.


Obesity can strike anyone at any age, especially young children. However, as you age, hormonal changes and a less active lifestyle increase your risk of becoming obese. In addition, as you age, your muscular mass tends to decline. In general, less muscle mass results in a decrease in metabolism. Additionally, these changes reduce calorie needs and can make it harder to lose weight. If you don't watch what you eat and up your physical activity as you get older, you're more likely to gain weight.

Other factors

Pregnancy. Putting on weight when pregnant is typical. Some women have trouble losing this weight once the baby is born. Future weight gain in women may be facilitated by this rise in body weight.

quitting smoking Losing weight is commonly associated with stopping smoking. Additionally, it might lead to some individuals gaining enough weight to qualify as obese. This frequently happens because people use food to cope with their smoking withdrawal. However, quitting smoking remains healthier for your health over time than continuing to smoke. With your doctor's guidance, you can prevent putting on weight after stopping smoking.

Insufficient Sleep

Sleep deprivation or oversleeping can alter hormones and make you feel hungry. Furthermore, you might crave foods that are high in calories and carbohydrates because they can make you gain weight.


Numerous external factors that affect mood and general wellbeing can have an impact on obesity. People usually seek for more calorie-dense foods when under stress.


Your gut flora are impacted by what you eat, which can result in weight gain or make it challenging to lose weight.

Obesity is not something you will necessarily develop, even if you have one or more of these risk factors. By modifying your diet, increasing your exercise, and altering your behaviour, you may reduce the majority of risk factors.


Obese people are more likely to develop a number of potentially significant medical conditions, including:

  • cardiovascular diseases and strokes. Obesity increases your chance of high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, which both raise your risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Type 2 diabetes Obesity may affect the body's utilisation of insulin to control blood sugar levels. The likelihood of developing diabetes and insulin resistance increases as a result.
  • Certain cancers. Obesity may increase the risk of some cancers, including those of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, colon, rectum, oesophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, and prostate.
  • Digestion problems Obesity increases the risk of liver problems, gallbladder difficulties, and heartburn.
  • Sleep Apnea: Obesity raises the chance of developing sleep apnea, a potentially harmful disorder in which breathing frequently pauses and resumes while you're asleep.
  • Osteoarthritis: Obesity stimulates inflammatory processes in the body and puts more strain on weight-bearing joints. Problems like osteoarthritis could be brought on by these factors.
  • Severe COVID-19 Symptoms: Obesity increases the chance that, should you get the coronavirus sickness virus in 2019, you'll likely have severe symptoms (COVID-19). Critical care facilities may be required for treatment of severe COVID-19 instances, or mechanical breathing aid may be necessary.
  • Relevant details: The disease COVID-19 is increasingly linked to excessive obesity - Related Information Establishing a stronger link between having COVID-19 and being overweight.

Lifestyle Quality

Obesity can reduce overall enjoyment of life. It's possible that you won't be able to continue enjoying the athletic pursuits you once adored. If you can, try to avoid going in public. Even discrimination may be experienced by obese persons.

Your quality of life may be impacted by the following weight-related problems as well:

  • Repression
  • Disability
  • Guilt and Shame
  • Social isolation
  • Decreases productivity

Obesity Control

To avoid adult obesity, one must engage in regular physical activity, cut back on saturated fat, limit sugar intake, and consume more fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a healthy weight may also benefit from family and medical involvement.

  1. Choosing wholesome foods and beverages (whole grains, fruits, veggies, healthy fats, and sources of protein)
  2. Reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages (such as red meat, processed meat, potatoes, refined cereals, and sweets) (sugary drinks)
  3. Increase Exercise
  4. limiting one's exposure to screens, television, and other "sit time"
  5. Improve Your Sleep
  6. Reduce Stress

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Obesity | Obesity diet & tips for reducing weight

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